The Nobelprize Laureates

The Nobelweek was started with the prize in Medicin being awarded to John O’Keefe and  May-Britt and Edvard Moser “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”. Among the publications we can offer the following in fulltext (search for the titles in Summon):

Hafting, T., Fyhn, M., Molden, S., Moser, M.B., and Moser, E.I. (2005). Microstructure of spatial map in the entorhinal cortex. Nature 436, 801-806.

Fyhn, M., Molden, S., Witter, M.P., Moser, E.I., Moser, M.B. (2004) Spatial representation in the entorhinal cortex. Science 305, 1258-1264.

There is also a scientific background available.

The following day the Physics prize was awarded jointly to Isamu AkasakiHiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura “for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”. The scientific background is a good place to start and there are no specific publications mentioned but if you search for the laureates in Summon you get several publications to choose from.

The prize in Chemistry was awarded jointly to Eric BetzigStefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner “for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”. The scientific background and a search in Summon on any of the laureates gives good insight on the subject.

On thursday it was time for the The Nobel Prize in Literature which was awarded to Patrick Modiano for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation”. We have a few books in his native language french in the library, 4th floor, shelf Hj -Modiano.

The first week of announcements was ended with the Nobel Peace Prize which was awarded jointly to Kailash Satyarthiand Malala Yousafzai “for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education“. If you search for any of them i Summon there will be access to several articles about both of them and their respective story from magazines and newspapers from all over the world.

The last laureate was presented on monday of this week, The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was awarded to Jean Tirole “for his analysis of market power and regulation”. The library holds his book The theory of corporate finance and several articles available in fulltext via Summon. There is also a scientific background to start with when learning more on the subject of his research. 

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Text: Lisa Carlson

Nobel Prize Award Ceremony and Nobel Banquet

Nobel day is 10th December and it is celebrated in the Blue Hall of Stockholm City Hall. The Award Ceremony has been held there since 1934. The Nobel Laureates are presented their prizes, a medal, a diploma and money. Before they are awarded the prize they give a short speech of the work which has led to the Nobel Prize. After the Prize ceremony the Nobel Banquet follows. Average ages of a Nobel Laureate is 59 years, 45 times it has been awarded a woman and 6 persons or organisations have received the prize more than once. e.g. the International Red Cross has received Nobel Peace Prize three times (1917, 1944, 1963) and Marie Curie has received the prize for both physics (1903) and chemistry (1911). More facts about the Nobel Prize.

Swedist Television will be sending the Award Ceremony and Nobel Banquet. You can follow the celebrations at Svtplay.

You can find lots of information about the celebrations and Nobel Laureates at Nobelpize.org; images and video clip from previous celebrations. There is video from the Award Ceremoneis, menus for the previous Banquets and even pictures of the Queen’s gala dresses.

Follow the discussions on Twitter at #NobelPrize

Pieta Eklund

 

 

Nobel Peace Prize

During this week before the Nobel Prize ceremony in Stockolm and Oslo, December 10, we present the Nobel Prize winners and what they have received the prize for.


opcw_logoNobel Peace Prize is awarded to Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for their work to prohibit chemical weapons. Thorbjørn Jagland, the chair of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, says that OPCW receive the Prize for their ”extensive efforts to eliminate chemial weapons”.

This year again, the Norwegian Nobel Committee receive critisim in the social media on their choise. Many had expressed their supprot of Malala Yousafzai, the young pakistani girl shot to the head and neck when on her way home from school because she is an activist fighting for children’s and expecaillay girls’ rights to education. Jagland defends their choice by reminding us that the disarmament figures prominently in Alfred Nobel’s will.

OPCW is an intergovernemntal organisation making sure that the UN chemical weapons convention is followed. According to OPCW they have been able to reduce the world’s chemical weapons arsenals by 80%. They have been working with disarmament and destruction of chemical weapons in Syria. 189 countries are members. Syria is not a member.

Pieta Eklund

Prize in Economic Sciences

During this week before the Nobel Prize ceremony in Stockolm and Oslo, December 10, we present the Nobel Prize winners and what they have received the prize for.

The Prize in Economic Sciences is awarded to Eugene Fama, Lars Peter Hansen and Robert Shiller. It is impossible to predict if the prices will go up or down tomorrow or next week but it is possible to foresee the broad course of longer time periods. They receive the prize due to the methods they have developed to study the prices of financial asset prices and have applied them in studies of detailed data on the prices of stocks, bonds or other assets. This has led to theory development and professional investment practice. They have laid the gound for asset price resarch. The Nobel Laureates research has had big impact for research of financial markets.

Eugene Fama is born 1939 in Boston, USA. Today he is Robert R. McCormick Distinguished Service Professor of Finance vid University of Chicago, IL, USA

Lars Peter Hansen is born 1952 in USA. Today he is David Rockefeller Distinguished Service Professor in Economics & Statistics vid University of Chicago, IL, USA.

Robert J. Shiller is born 1946. Today he is Sterling Professor of Economics vid Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

Reading tips and a longer popular science backgound to the Prize in Economic Sciences.

Pieta Eklund

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

During this week before the Nobel Prize ceremony in Stockolm and Oslo, December 10, we present the Nobel Prize winners and what they have received the prize for.

This year’s Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof.They receive the prize for ther work on the transport system of cells is organized. Cells produce molecules and these are sent in small pagages, vesicles, to different parts of the body. The Nobel Laureates discovered how these molecules are transported to the right place at the right time in the cell.

Rothman, Schekman and Südhof have all discovered different parts of the transport system. Schenkman discovered that there is a group of genes which act as traffic leaders and are needed for vesicle traffic. Rothman discovered that the protein machinery that allows the vesicle to fuse with its target to deliver its cargo and Südof revealed how the signals instruct where and when the vesicles are to unload their cargo.

The reason these three discoveries are so important is that they give us insight to disease processes. Transportation is a fundamental process in the cell and defective vesicle transportation is present in various neurological and immunological diseases, as well as in diabetes.

James E. Rothman is born 1950 in Haverhill, Massachusetts, USA. Today he is a Professor in cell biology at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Randy W. Schekman is born 1948 i St Paul, Minnesota, USA. Today he is Professor at the Department of Molecular and Cell biology at University of California in Berkeley. He is alsos an investigator of Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Tomas C. Südhof  is born 1955 in Göttingen, Germany. Today he is Professor of Melecular and Cellular Physiology at Stanford University.

Some key publications:

Novick, P. & Schekman, R. (1979). Secretion and cell-surface growth are blocked in a temperature-sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 76(4), pp. 1858-1862.

Balch, W.E., Dunphy, W.G., Braell, W.A. & Rothman, J.E. (1984). Reconstitution of the transport of protein between successive compartments of the Golgi measured by the coupled incorporation of N-acetylglucosamine. Cell, 39, pp. 405-416.

Kaiser, C.A. & Schekman, R. (1990) Distinct sets of SEC genes govern transport vesicle formation and fusion early in the secretory pathway. Cell, 61, pp. 723-733.

Perin, M.S., Fried, V.A., Mignery, G.A., Jahn, R. & Südhof, T.C. (1990). Phospholipid binding by a synaptic vesicle protein homologous to the regulatory region of protein kinase C. Nature, 345, pp. 260-263.

Sollner, T., Whiteheart, W., Brunner, M., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Geromanos, S., Tempst, P. & Rothman, J.E. (1993). SNAP receptor implicated in vesicle targeting and fusion. Nature, 362, pp. 318-324.

Hata, Y., Slaughter, C.A. & Südhof, T.C. (1993). Synaptic vesicle fusion complex contains unc-18 homologue bound to syntaxin. Nature, 366, pp. 347-351.

Press Release from the Nobel Assembly at Karlokinska Institutet.

Pieta Eklund