Let the databases help out with referencing

Most student essays and theses require correct referencing, this means that you need to place references to your sources both in the text and in a bibliography or a reference list at the end of your document. The references are sorted in alphabetical order and should contain sufficient information for your readers to easily find the documents you have used in your work.

There are automatic functions available in various search engines to automatically extract citations for a bibliography. Here are some examples:

Primo – www.hb.se/library
The library’s new discovery tool. Here you will find references to our print book collection as well as lots of e-books and articles.

Libris – libris.kb.se
Sweden’s national library catalog. Here you can find books, dissertations, reports and more available at Swedish libraries.

Google Scholar – scholar.google.com 
Here you can do a broad search for scientific literature. You also can find student papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles, from universities and academic publishers here. Note, however, that everything in Google Scholar is not “scientific” but there are still different in content and functions other than the search engine Google.

Adjustments necessary
Please note that the  formatting and content can vary between different search engines – therefore, always make sure that all references in your source list has a consistent look and conforms to your preferred style.

Reference to a book:
Eklund, K. (2007). Our economy: An introduction to the national economy. 11. Edition, Stockholm: Norstedts..

Reference to a journal article:
Elmqvist, C., Brown, D., Fridlund, B., & Ekebergh, M. (2010). Being first on the scene of an accident – experiences of ‘doing’ prehospital emergency care. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 24 (2), ss. 266-273.

Text: Sara Hellberg
Picture: Colourbox

Academic texts, part 5: Target Audience

Sometimes you can determine whether a text is scientific och popular scientifc by getting a sence of who is the primary target audience of the text. Scientific texts are written the other researchers in the subject area in mind. This means that some things are taken for granted, e.g. subject knowledge or that the author is familiar with a specific theoretic tradition. It might also mean that a specific language (e.g. established terms or mathematical formulas) is used which is not easy to understand for those outside of the research area. Consequenses for readability differs between the research areas – in some subjects the target audiences ia a wide audience, even the generel public, while in other areas texts are mainly written for specialists. These specialists may include both researchers and professional population.

Within the natural sciences and history there are many good examples of writing popular science articles and presenting research in a more accessible way. Journals whose main audience (as authors and/or reader) is professional people are often (not always) popular science, branch or trade journals.

Scientific journals are aimed for researchers, students and professional people.The following for example is written in the description of description of Journal of Documentation from Emerald Publishers:

”Key journal audiences

  • Educators, scholars, researchers and advanced students in the information sciences
  • Reflective practitioners in the information professions
  • Policy makers and funders in information-related areas
  • The Journal’s content will also be of value to scholars and students in many related subject areas.”

In Author guidelines for the influential journal Nature we can see that the journals is written a number of audiences in mind but that all of them are not expected to read each and every article:

”Authors are strongly encouraged to attempt two 100-word summaries, one to encapsulate the significance of the work for readers of Nature (mainly scientists or those in scientifically related professions); and the other to explain the conclusions at an understandable level for the general public.” (From “For Authors”)

Both of these journals have researchers, students and professional people within the special areas as the target audience but they are also open for the fact that even general public might be interested in the articles.

//Helena Francke, lector at BHS

Blog posts are translated from Swedish by Pieta Eklund.

Academic texts, part 4: References

Reference management is an important part of scientific texts. References should be used in detail and in a correct manner to support your discussions and arguments. You use references to previous research to support your own study – you provide a context for your study. It is also considered good academic conduct (both towards other authors but also readers) to cite others’ work correctly. Through the text you refer to you take part in  scientific tradition; you show where you belong scientificly. References can also be used in a rhetorical way – to convince the reader that you know relevant litterature.

In different scientific genres and sub-genres references are handled different and also there are varying ways to form and to use citations and references within differend fields. There are texts which have great influence on science which do not include comprehensive references. An example of this is  Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen). Maybe one could debate whether these texts are scientific or not but they are seen as highly reasonable to cite in today’s scientific texts.

Further reading:

Hellqvist, B. (2010). Referencing in the humanities and its implications for citation analysisJournal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(2), 310-318.

//Helena Francke, lector at BHS

Blog posts are translated from Swedish by Pieta Eklund.

Refer to unpublished works

Yloginesterday I got the question of how to refer to something that is behind a login. It could be a document or webpage that is not available to everyone. This can of course lead to difficulties for the person checking your references.

This may include documents / information in an intranet, a presentation of some sort that you got from a person, for example, someone you interviewed for the assignment, or a checklist for environmental certification of a company as was the case yesterday. For this type of material you use the phrase [unpublished manuscript] or other appropriate phrase like [PowerPoint presentation] or [checklist for environmental certification] after the title of the document.

The reference in yesterday’s case, would look something like this:

Author / Editor, (Year) Title [checklist environmental certification] Location: Company / Organization

Text: Lisa Carlson

What to refer to?

I received a question at the information point yesterday about how to refer to web pages. When I asked further about what web pages was the student thinking of I found out it had to do with pdfs. Then I asked even more and found out now that the pdfs were journal articles which the student had found using one of our databases. If one asks there are more wondering about thisl

Journal articles are refered to as articles no matter where you find them – on a web page or a print journal. It is the sources that is the important part – not the form. The same goes when you search in a database or use our search engines. It is not the database och the search engine which is your source. More about that can be found in the blog post Google is not your source!

In order to illustrate this further I give you two examples here:

Take a look at  Information research.It is a (scholarly) journal (stating that even on the page) published only online. Now, take a look at this article Continuum thinking and the contexts of personal information management. It looks like a web pages but it is an article published in a journal and is refered to as an article.Your source is the article published in a online journal which looks like a web page. Reference looks like this:

Huvila, I., Eriksen, J., Häusner, E. & Jansson, I. (2014). Continuum thinking and the contexts of personal information management. Information Research, 19(1) paper 604. [Available at http://InformationR.net/ir/19-1/paper604.html]

Articles which you download from a database are often in pdf-format. When you open the file you most often will find bibliografic information (journal name, volume, issue, DOI) either on the page header or footer. Use this information to write the reference. URL to the pdf is not interesting – it varies depending on if you are here at the library or if your are at home or if you have gotten hold of it through some other library.

Now, lets speculate that you are writing about H&M and their understanding of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility, CSR. Find more about it here. When looking at that page you see that it is also a web page like the page Information Research has – only with a better looking design. Here the web page is your source. Maybe you want to write about how H&M uses water and you use the page for Water as your source. Reference looks something like this:

H&M. (2014). Water. http://about.hm.com/en/About/Sustainability/Commitments/Use-Resources-Responsibly/Water.html [2014-03-27]

H&M is the author since we cannot find someone who would have authored this page. Water is the title of the page – look at the tab for the name of the page. Then comes the URL and last in brackets the access date. The date is important since web pages are not static. If you compare with the reference above you notice that there is no access date in the reference. THis is because the contents of the article is not changed after publication. Articles are static web pages with the exception of daily newspapers. If you use a daily newspaper online as a source you need to write down the access date.

When you have questions about references come to the information point. We are there to help! Remember – cite your sources!

Pieta Eklund

 

Search engines will help you fix the references

You can use automatic features of the various search engines to get the information to be included in the bibliography.

Summonwww.hb.se / library
The library’s multi-search discovery tool. Here you will find references to our printed books and lots of e-books and articles.

Librislibris.kb.se
Sweden’s national library catalog. Here you can find books, dissertations, reports, and so forth, available at Swedish libraries.

Google Scholar scholar.google.se
Here you can do a broad search for scientific literature. You also can find student papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles, from universities and academic publishers here. Note, however, that everything in Google Scholar is not “scientific” but there are still different in content and functions other than the search engine Google.

Completing required
Please note that the appearance and content can vary between different search engines – therefore, always make sure that all references in your source list has a consistent look and follows Harvard Guide. Especially Swedish article references are sometimes inaccurate and needs to be adjusted.

Reference to the book:
Eklund, K. (2007). Our economy: An introduction to the national economy. 11. Edition, Stockholm: Norstedt academic publishers.

The reference to article:
Elmqvist, C., Brown, D., Fridlund, B., & Ekebergh, M. (2010). Being first on the scene of an accident – experiences of ‘doing’ prehospital emergency care. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 24 (2), ss. 266-273.COLOURBOX7313844

Other databases and search engines
The subject-specific databases that the library subscribes to also have these features.Contact the library if you have any questions regarding any individual database!

Text: Sara Hellberg

 

Academic texts, part 4: References

Reference management is an important part of scientific texts. References should be used in detail and in a correct manner to support your discussions and arguments. You use references to previous research to support your own study – you provide a context for your study. It is also considered good academic conduct (both towards other authors but also readers) to cite others’ work correctly. Through the text you refer to you take part in  scientific tradition; you show where you belong scientificly. References can also be used in a rhetorical way – to convince the reader that you know relevant litterature.

In different scientific genres and sub-genres references are handled different and also there are varying ways to form and to use citations and references within differend fields. There are texts which have great influence on science which do not include comprehensive references. An example of this is  Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen). Maybe one could debate whether these texts are scientific or not but they are seen as highly reasonable to cite in today’s scientific texts.

Further reading:

Hellqvist, B. (2010). Referencing in the humanities and its implications for citation analysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(2), 310-318.

//Helena Francke, lector at BHS

Blog posts are translated from Swedish by Pieta Eklund.