These guidelines represent an attempt to address the growing need for a clear,
comprehensive and consistent system for the citation of moving image and sound.
despite the increasing use of audiovisual material in teaching, learning and research in
higher and further education, the basic criteria listed in existing referencing systems such
as Harvard and Chicago do not fully address the wide range of types and formats that
need formal citation, based as they are on standards developed for the written word.
Tip: Sara Hellberg
Text: Lisa Carlson