How should I refer continuously to my text?

It is important that you take time to learn how to refer to the work of others correctly, because scientific writing is based on previous research that someone else has done. In order for your readers to easily find your sources you have used, you must phrase your referrals in a consistent way. Probably, by now you’ve got an idea on how to arrange your reference list, want to know more, check this out. But how does it work with referring to current text? Should the reference be before or after your own text? How to do if you have a reference to a whole paragraph? What should I use for descriptive words when I refer? Should I specify pages? How do I enter a quote?

Here are some quick tips on what to consider when referring while writing.

Here at the library we use the Harvard system and have a detailed guide and guide on our website but it is only in swedish. Anglia Ruskin University has an excellent Harvard guide in english you can use otherwise. Most of the courses at Borås University use the Harvard system but not all, check with your tutor and teacher what is applicable.

How should a reference in current text appear? Here are some common examples:

Dahlberg (1997) points out that …

… these rules of Dahlberg (1997) are well established …

Allemansrätten is another aspect that strongly influences the conditions for outdoor life and nature tourism (Kaltenborn et al., 2001; Sandell & Sörlin 2000; Sandell, 1997).
When you talk about multiple authors in current text, use the word and. However, you should use the character & when you enter the authors in brackets and also in the source list.

Should the reference be before or after your own text?

As in the examples above, the reference can be given in different places depending on how it fits in. Usually it is placed after the paragraph referring to the source in question, but the text reference can also be woven into the text. It consists of an parenthesis that usually contains the author’s last name and source’s release year (and page number). Here are examples of how it may look like:

… a model called constructive alignment (Biggs 1999).

… constructive alignment developed by John Biggs (1999) is a well-established model that …

How to do if you have a reference to a whole paragraph?

When you want to refer to one and the same source for an entire paragraph, it suffices to have it once, and then please in the beginning. If the paragraph is very far you can specify the source further sometime towards the end, so the reader should not have to look for the reference.

Page in the text reference

Practices vary in different subject areas, also when it comes to specifying which page in the source the information is retrieved from or not. When referring to long texts, some consider it a service for the reader to indicate where in the book information you have used exists, while others only want pageviews for quotes. Follow practice within your subject area. The examples in this guide include page views listed sometimes.

Some teachers are what McGuinness (2007, p. 30) calls “heavy users” of the library …

Some teachers are what McGuinness (2007, pp. 30-33) calls “heavy users” of the library …

Some teachers are what McGuinness (2007, Rev. 30, 33) calls “heavy users” of the library …

What should I use for descriptive words when I refer?

Sometimes it may be difficult to vary the language when you refer, but it makes the text a bit more fun if you vary the terms when you refer. For example. writes, suggests, suggests, instructs, questions, expresses doubts, has a different explanation, and so on, There are always synonyms to add but sometimes you may also search for another word that actually gives the statement a little different meaning. Try it out! Karolinska institutet (KI) has a useful frasbank where you can get more tips on phrases to use.
How do I enter a quote?

A quote must be accurately rendered and the reference should also contain a page number. Shorter quotes should be written directly in the quote text (“”). If you exclude text within a quote, mark this with […].

“Communication becomes the tool by which the incomprehensible becomes understandable for that learning, but also for the teaching” (Jonsson 2004, p. 117).

Longer quotes should usually be given a clearer mark and written as a separate paragraph with indentations in the right and left hand lines with an empty line between quotes and your own text.

There is no easy answer. Until a satisfactory solution is found, most people can agree that there is a need for greater social networking savvy […]. Social media is not going away nor should it. All of us need to think twice, however, before we post personal content.
(Moore 2012, p. 91)

Hope you have gotten some stuff about referring in current text. If not, come to us in the information desk and we’ll help you! Also, do not forget that the library on Thursdays has a craftsman with drop in, where language support is also represented. To make sure that you refer correctly and do not run the risk of being charged with plagiarism, check out the university’s anti-placement guide

Text: Lena Holmberg
Photo: Mostphotos

How much are you allowed to copy?

Students tend to copy a lot; books, articles, lecture notes and other things. In this blog post we focus on books – how much of a book are you allowed to copy?

There is an agreement that regulates copying for students and teachers at universities in Sweden. The agreement is made between the organisation Bonus Copyright Accessand The Association of Swedish Higher Education.

First, one can consider what “a copy” is. According the agreement the following activities equals copying:

  • Photocopy
  • Print
  • Download
  • Scanning
  • Save a digital file

So now we know what a copy is, time to look into the heart of the matter: How much are you allowed to copy?

The 15/15-rule is central in the agreement. This rule me15ans that you are allowed to copy 15 % of a book, but no more than 15 pages (every six month). So – if you have a 100 page book, you are allowed to copy 15 pages from this book. If you have a 200 page book (15 % of the book is 30 pages), you may copy 15 pages of the book. And if you have a 60 page book (where 15 % are 9 pages), you may copy 9 pages.

Here’s a brochure summarizing the agreement, if you want to read about other aspects of the agreement.

In conclusion: You may copy 15 %, or 15 pages, of a book you’re going to use in your studies.

If you do not follow the agreement for copying, for example by copying more than you are allowed to, you are guilty of infringement of copyright, and that may result in a liability to pay damages.

Text: Katharina Nordling
Pictures: Josh Applegate on Unsplash and Colourbox

Buy more prints – here’s how you do it!

We are getting a lot of questions at the Information Point on how to buy more prints. This is a short description on how you do it. If you need to refill your print account there are two ways to do it. You can do it all by yourself online, or you can buy a voucher. Both ways require that you log in to the system PaperCut at some stage.

Buy online

To buy mer prints online is really easy, and you pay with your bank card or a PayPalaccount (if you happen to have one). This is how it works:

1. Log in to PaperCut. Note that you need to change language before you log in, it’s not possible to change language once you’ve logged in.

2. When you’re in – select Add Credit (in the left menu).

3. Select how many print credits you want to buy. 1 print credit = 1 SEK, and 1 black and white page costs 0,5 print credits to print. Press the button ADD VALUE.

4. Now the next page is in Swedish (even if you changed language before). In order to get another language – select your home country in the drop-down menu where it for the moment says “Sverige”:

5. Select method for paying – PayPal or bank card.

  • If you select PayPal – log in with your PayPal account and finish your payment.
  • If you select bank card – fill in the information about your card, and also your address and phone number. This information is required in order to complete your payment.

6. Click on the button at the end of the page to pay, the text on the button depends om which language you have chosen.

7. Done! Your new printouts are now available at your account.

Buy a voucher

If you don’t have a PayPal-account, and you can’t (or don’t want to) use your bank card online, it’s possible to buy a voucher instead. You buy the voucher at the Library or at the Student Reception. This is how it works:

1. Buy a voucher. The Library sells vouchers worth 50 SEK or 100 SEK.

2. Log in to PaperCut. Note that you need to change language before you log in, it’s not possible to change language once you’ve logged in.

3. When you’ve logged in – click on Redeem Card (in the left menu).

4. Enter the code on the voucher (all numbers, letters and hyphens). Click the Redeem Card-button.

5. Done! The print credits are now at your account, and you can throw away the voucher, it has now lost it’s value.

Text: Katharina Nordling
Pictures: Klaz Arvidson

Your library account – here’s how it works!

Here’s a review of the features of your library account – how to see which books you borrowed, which ones you have reserved, if you have overdue fines, how you locate your saved searches, etc.

Log in

To log in to your library account, go to the library’s web page and scroll down to Quick Links a bit down the page and click on what is called My library. If you are a student or staff at the university, log in with your usual user account; if you are a patron who is not affiliated with the university, you will use your personal identity number and chosen password to log in.

If you have searched in Primo, the login option is at the top right corner of the window. Click the link Log in.

Overview

Once logged in to the account, you will get to a summary page. Here you can see some of your loans and requests for books, as well as a summary of any overdue fines or fees you might have.

Requested books (reservations and interlibrary loans)

If you click Requests, you will get a list of the books you requested (either by reserving a book that is on loan or ordered as a loan from another library):

Here you can cancel a request, if the book is no longer relevant for you to borrow. If you want to cancel the request, just click Cancel on the current book.

Loans

You can also click on Loans to view all your borrowed books, and renew your loans. If there is a button to renew then it’s possible to renew the loan. If the button is missing this means that someone has reserved the book (or that it is an interlibrary loan). But renewing you loans in this way is not necessary because the library has introduced automatic renewals.

Saved searches and search results

When you log in to your library account, you can also find the searches and search results you have saved at aprevious time. To access your searches and saved results, click the pin in the upper right corner of the window. You will then come to what is called My Favorites and you can see the single titles / records you saved earlier, but also the searches you have chosen to save. Learn more about saving searches or saving single titles from your list of results.

Text & pictures: Katharina Nordling

Automatic renewals – here’s how it works!

When you borrow a book at the library, the loan will be automatically renewed if it’s possible – here’s a description of how the procedure works.

An automatic renewal is a renewal that’s made by the system. No one has to do anything, nor you or a librarian. However the system is stopped from doing a renewal of the loan if someone else has made a request for the book, or if the loan period has reached the maximum limit.

It all works like this:

You borrow a book at the Library; the loan period is either 7 or 21 days (depending on if it’s a course book or another book). When it’s two days left of the loan period the systems checks to see if it’s possible to renew the loan, then one of the following scenarios happen:

  1. No one has made a request for the book – the loan is renewed and you get a new loan period for 7 or 21 days (depending on if it’s a course book or another book).
  2. The loan cannot be renewed; you will be notified by e-mail and the original due date remains.

If scenario 1 happens, the same procedure will repeat two days before the new loan period ends.

In practice this means that you can keep the book until you get notified by e-mail that it’s time to return the book. But if you are going to use that practice – you need to check your e-mail address regularly, because in the end it’s you who are responsible of returning your books on time.

Text & Picture: Katharina Nordling

How to find the book in the library

Do you think it’s tricky to find books in the library? We have a great guide on the webthat you can look at, and then you know how you should proceed.

All libraries are structured in a specific way in order to make it possible to find books. To find a book in any library: Always start by searching.

In our library you use Primo at the library’s website to find the exact shelf placement for the book. By searching Primo you will also see directly if the book is at the shelf or not.
Here we see that the book should be found on floor 1 at the course book shelf where all books are not for loan. There are all the books sorted alphabetically.

This book is also for loan and if its avalable, at another shelf on the 4th floor at shelf 808.066 Once you are at the right shelf, the books are arranged in alphabetical order, usually by author but sometimes by the title. Therefore it is important to always search for the book on the web first, before you go up on the shelf. How is the book placed within the shelf? In this case, on the title.

Hopefully you have now found the book and can borrow it!

Text and photo: Lena Holmberg

Welcome to a new semester!

Welcome all of you new and old students and researchers!

It’s time for a new semester and today is the first day, and for many of you this a familiar environment you come back to – but for some of you the University of Borås is a whole new experience. Maybe new accommodation, new city, new student buddies and new courses. Here on the Library blog we want to give you a few tips that can help you, new or old student, regarding library services:

  • Library opening hours are displayed on the website.
  • A reference copy of all required textbooks are available on the 1st floor – these books can not be borrowed and are only for use in the library.
  • All textbooks for loan stands on each subjectshelf in the library. Many textbooks are also available as e-books.
  • Most of our materials can be found by searching in Primo (our discovery tool). You find the searchbox on our website.
  • Your tag is your library card and also a copy / print card.
  • Photocopying is mainly available the 1st floor.
  • Multifunction printers are available on all floors (except 2.5). Instructions for printing can be found here.
  • The library has many study rooms – you book the rooms through Kronox.
  • All books in the library are in numerical order – from 000 on level 2.5 to 999 on the 4th floor.
  • The library has printed journals on level 1 but also on level 2. But the majority of our journals are electronic, and you can find them through the website.
  • Adjust the sound level to a normal conversational tone, this is a place of work for many people. A good idea is to put your phone in silent mode.
  • There is a quiet study room in the library, you find it at the entrance floor.
  • Keep in mind that you’re not allowed to eat in the library. Drinks with lids, fruit and candy are OK; but for eating – please visit the café or the lounge with microwave ovens outside the library.
  • If you need help with information seeking just come ask the librarian at the Information point, we will gladly help you.
  • The Library Search lab has drop-in hours if you need further help with your information seeking. In addition, the Language lab is open at the same time in the same room, so you can also get help with linguistic questions.
  • If you have questions about your user account, problems with Microsoft Word or other questions, please feel free to contact us.

If you are a new student – please read more on our website with helpful information for you as a new student.

P.S. Feel free to follow us in social media!

Text: Lena Holmberg
Photo: Suss Wilén